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    传统知识的命运——世界知识产权组织大会的一项关键决议

    Published on 30 September 2009 @ 8:23 am

    By , Intellectual Property Watch

    世界知识产权组织(World Intellectual Property Organization)总干事今天在该联合国机构的年度大会开幕式上说,如果世界知识产权组织要保持决策上的影响力,它就必须能够在无论是最新的技术开发还是传统知识体系领域为创新制定标准。

    弗朗西斯•格里(Francis Gurry)在开幕词中说道,“制定标准的议程毫无进展。”“在好几个领域里都有障碍,”这对“该组织造成几个重大威胁”。他特别提到两个领域:传统知识和传统文化表现形式的保护,以及在数字环境下版权的未来。

    世界知识产权组织成员国大会于9月22日召开,到10月1日闭幕,大会讨论的其他关键问题还包括通过一项关于专利问题的工作计划,以及世界知识产权组织在诸如气候变化等全球性问题中的作用。

    同时,上周世界知识产权组织项目与预算委员会(WIPO Program and Budget Committee) 批准了实施2007年发展议程的追加资金,质询了审计委员会(Audit Committee)的组织机构,并就建设一个新世界知识产权组织会议中心的可能性问题进行了辩论。

    这些年度会议负责制定世界知识产权组织的工作职权。世界知识产权组织的几个委员会一直备受关注,会议将审核这几个委员会的主要工作成果并对其建议作出决定。年会的头两天主要进行首次部长会议,有主要来自发展中国家的40余位部长在会上发言。

    今年的大会是格里第一次以总干事的身份出席。他在发言中首先描述了为提高世界知识产权组织问责制而正在执行中的各种举措。

    传统知识、版权、专利和气候变化的挑战

    世界知识产权组织本周议程达成的一项关键决议,是对传统知识和遗传资源保护未来问题的决议,而这恰恰是去年无法达成协议的一个问题。

    知识产权与遗传资源、传统知识和民间文学艺术政府间委员会(Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, IGC)在上次在今年6月29日到7月3日举行的会议上未能达成协议,这预示着2008年10月13日至17日协商会议的破裂。

    许多发展中国家敦促,这个已运行了长达10余年的委员会会议转向保护这些类型的知识产权权利的条约谈判。在它们中,非洲组(Africa Group)呼吁就签署具有法律约束力的国际公约进行会谈。其它的,首先是B组发达国家表示,在开始谈判前确立目标是不明智的。

    大会将怎样对待“无协议”文本尚不清楚;正常情况下,大会都根据各委员会的建议执行采取行动。格里要求各位代表展现灵活性,允许委员会的工作继续下去,好让发展中国家相信国际社会已经接近于寻找到国际保护方案了。

    总干事也呼吁关注从互联网上下载东西,他说95%的都是侵犯版权,“忽视知识产权达到了一个新的水平”。他补充说,这是一个全球挑战,另一大挑战就是如果不是所有形式的文化也是大部分形式的文化正在转移到互联网,互联网用户创造的内容也在不断涌现。

    格里特别强调《专利合作条约》(Patent Cooperation Treaty)对世界知识产权组织的重要性。他向会员保证,为未来完善该条约制定一个“路标”“不是在制定标准”,《专利合作条约》在任何方面都不会影响会员国的主权。

    格里也赞扬了同时但在纽约正在举行的联合国大会。今天,联合国大会的议题是谈论气候变化的挑战。格里坚持认为,这个话题也是需要知识产权团体需要注意的。

    他说,“有一种看法,知识产权可能对应对气候变化需要的政策倡议产生消极影响。”但是随着全球经济的整个基本结构需要改变,很难想象一种单一技术的知识产权权利会是一个障碍。他说,与其如此,可把它看成我们需要的绿色创新的一个“体制刺激激励”。

    世界知识产权组织认为2008-2009年度收入向好:下一个两年度预算期更艰难

    格里今天在大会上说,尽管遭遇经济危机,世界知识产权组织希望这个两年度预算期结束时能有一个“积极的财政记录”。但是,下一阶段形式会更严峻,估计收入要下降1.6%。他表示,收入预计在2010年下半年才开始再次上升。

    计划与预算委员会上周通过了2010/2011年的临时预算,世界知识产权组织大部分未分配的资源都拨给了发展议程(Development Agenda)项目。计划与预算委员会提出建议汇总可以从以下网址得到:

    据与会者透露,目前仍存在争议的是怎样向至今仍未通过的发展议程项目分配资源。开发与知识产权委员会(Committee on Development and Intellectual Property, CDIP)将在11月和来年4月召开会议,但下一次预算会议直到来年7月才召开。这让许多发展中国家不禁疑惑:没有预算资源支持,11月份通过的项目怎样能及时得到实施。

    但是其他国家,主要是B组的发达国家,表示他们担心向至今尚未确定的项目分配资金会违反规定,坚持认为在项目细节敲定之后才能分配资金予以实施。

    然而,一些发展中国家指出,《专利合作条约》制度规定了一个4400万瑞士法郎的预算资金,用于拨付合同服务下的“其他事项”。如果这个不违反规定,那么他们认为也应该允许分配资金资助开发项目。

    最后,来自预算未分配部分(以备年内不时之需)的230万瑞士法郎被暂时拨付用作发展议程项目的启动资金,这个问题将在今年11月讨论。据悉,这是开发与知识产权委员会2009年4月通过的为各项活动拨付224万瑞士法郎外的另一笔款项。另外10万法郎也已被分配到开发议程项目以及用于协调工作,这意味着699.6万瑞士法郎的未分配资金中共有564万法郎现在用于发展项目。

    在9月14-16日举行的计划与预算委员会会议上,金融危机是贯穿始终的一个主题。在预见到下一个财政年度收入降低后,世界知识产权组织准备勒紧裤腰带过日子。格里在介绍预算时说,“世界知识产权组织对金融和经济危机的感受很可能比联合国系统内的几乎任何其他组织都强烈,它90%以上的资金都来自对私营部门的废服务费收入。”

    审计委员会工作组,会议中心建设

    另一个计划与预算委员会广泛讨论的问题是世界知识产权组织审计委员会的构成。发展中国家呼吁该委员会由9个成员构成,而发达国家说要限制在5人之内。因此,世界知识产权组织将成立一个工作组来审查审计委员会的职责范围与构成人数规模,然后将在2010年向计划与预算委员会提交一份建议。

    据几个不同的渠据得知,世界知识产权组织一直要求新建一个会议中心,但在法国和瑞士质疑在世界知识产权组织在其他方面都在削减成本的情况下去投资这个预计达6420万瑞士法郎的项目是否合理后,这个问题便变得不置可否。计划与预算委员会改为同意“记录下”会议大厅建设的提议以及提出的时间表,然后考虑额外资金的授权(然而没有提何时考虑)。

    牛威廉(William New)对撰写本文提供了帮助。

     


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