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Ten Questions About Internet Governance

On April 23 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the “Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance,” also known as “NETmundial” in an allusion to the global football event that will occur later in that country, will be convened. Juan Alfonso Fernández González of the Cuban Communications Ministry and a veteran of the UN internet governance meetings, raises 10 questions that need to be answered at NETmundial.


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    高级人权工作组把目光投向健康和知识产权问题

    Published on 8 April 2009 @ 12:26 pm

    By and for Intellectual Property Watch

    一份即将呈交给联合国发展权工作小组的文件说,世界卫生组织在保护健康和知识产权方面的全球战略虽然囊括了强有力并有可能创新模式的因素,但在人权方面仍有显著缺憾。

    发展权工作小组隶属于人权高专办公室,受命在人权框架内评估发展伙伴关系,诸如评估全球战略或世界知识产权组织发展议程。

    此份文件仍未放到互联网上。但它将在四月二到九日期间在日内瓦举办的一个会议上被宣读,这次高级工作组会议主题是发展权的行使,会议将给发展权工作组提供独立的专家意见。

    文件指出,全球战略在两个方面成绩斐然,一是为了促进公共卫生事业的发展,强调最大限度地发挥《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》灵活性的重要性;二是促进被忽视疾病的研究工作。全球战略包括成立一个研究为此类创新融资问题的工作小组,这是一个“大有前途的举措”。

    但是报告也指出了这个战略的弱点,那就是没有明确警告并反对在双边贸易协定中运用所谓的“超TRIPS协定”(TRIPs-plus)的措施,即那些超出与贸易有关的知识产权的承诺范围的做法,而这些措施会妨碍健康权的实现。另外,该全球战略在有关成员国促进可持续融资机制的义务方面也存在弱点,战略仅仅建议运用现有的融资机制,而没有建议采取额外的措施途径;另外,在详述现有战略方面,只是侧重于公私合作伙伴关系,而没有探讨各类不同的融资办法。

    2008年5月,世界卫生组织关于全球公共卫生、创新和知识产权战略和行动计划得到批准,它阐明了卫生机构如何处理卫生产品和卫生革新在涉及知识产权体系方面存在的不公问题的计划 (《知识产权观察》,世界卫生组织,2008年5月29日)。

    发展工作小组制定的2008年至2010年工作计划有一项职责,就是评估全球合作伙伴关系,评估标准是合作伙伴关系对关键性药品获得和技术转让的影响。根据这一点,这份由联合国外聘专家撰写的新文件,从享受卫生保健的权利,包括药品的获得和从科技进步中获益权利的角度出发,评价了世界卫生组织的全球战略,并评价了促成此战略形成的政府间工作组(IGWG)的工作程序。

    报告作者为多伦多大学博士后丽莎.福曼,她是该大学曼克(Munk)国际研究中心研究人权与公共卫生的专家。

    人权评估程序

    人权高专办公室是联合国设立用以鉴别和反对侵犯人权行为的专门机构。发展权工作小组设立于1998年,用以“监督和检查”1986年签订的《联合国发展权利宣言》中规定的各种权利的“促进和实施”工作的进展情况。

    发展权工作小组是通过该文件[pdf].第二附件详述的一套标准开展这项工作的。

    发展权高级工作组由5位独立专家组成,目前包括如下人员:美国哈佛大学公共卫生学院的查尔•斯蒂芬•马克思(Chair Stephen Marks)、荷兰莱顿(Leiden)大学格劳修斯(Grotius)国际法研究中心的尼克•司克瑞哲(Nico Schrijver)、美国新学院大学福田三木九•帕尔(Sakiko Fukuda-Parr)、加纳大学法学院的瑞芒德•阿图古巴(Raymond Atuguba)、巴西圣保罗宗座天主教(Pontifical Catholic)大学法学院的弗雷非•帕欧法散(Flavia Piovesan)。

    从人权视角看政府间工作组程序

    为了建立一个切实保障发展权的程序,就必须在实现人权的过程中有人权利益攸关部门的有效参与。福曼(Forman)的报告说道,这“与遵守其他构成发展权的原则密切相关。这些原则包括非歧视、透明和问责。”

    该报告承认若干国际公民协会团体的参与以及公共、网络听证会和咨询会的利用对于实现真正有效的参与很关键。但同时它也指出国内公民协会团体非常缺乏,并质疑在网络中提交的文件必须采用英文版是否有利于真正参与。通常国家越不发达,其代表团规模就越小,这导致一些国家的代表团无法参加一些程序内的工作组会议,从而影响全面充分参与。

    在全球战略中首要行为体依然是政府,发展中国家和发达国家的责任没有详细区分,诸如“要求”、“邀请”“强烈建议”之类的词淡化了具体行动的迫切性。结果,人权任务和责任的代表分配在某种程度上较弱。另外,衡量成功的指标没有明确具体的工作目标,尽管它可以用公共卫生的名义清点措施数目,但却无法测量此类措施的长期影响。。

    同时报告指出,“显著缺失的是衡量新药产量的指标,以及买得起现有药品的人口比重,”对于这样一个恰恰旨在实现这一目标的战略来说,这是一项“相当大的赤字”。

    发展权标准能够丰富政府间工作组和全球战略,这些标准或许会含蓄地表达权利,但并没有明确包含对这些权利的承认。该报告建议对发展权原则做出了几处修正,包括增加了几点意见,呼吁:评估超TRIP协定(TRIPs-plus)措施及其对健康的影响;根据健康权确保获得必要的药品;要求制药商将人权纳入他们的商业战略。

    近期计划将进行世界知识产权组织发展议程的人权审查。

    劳玉军译

     


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    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website. By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website.

    By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    1. You agree that you are fully responsible for the content that you post. You will not knowingly post content that violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property right of any third party or which you know is under a confidentiality obligation preventing its publication and that you will request removal of the same should you discover that you have violated this provision. Likewise, you may not post content that is libelous, defamatory, obscene, abusive, that violates a third party's right to privacy, that otherwise violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, that amounts to spamming or that is otherwise inappropriate. You may not post content that degrades others on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual preference, disability or other classification. Epithets and other language intended to intimidate or to incite violence are also prohibited. Furthermore, you may not impersonate others.

    2. You understand and agree that Intellectual Property Watch is not responsible for any content posted by you or third parties. You further understand that IP Watch does not monitor the content posted. Nevertheless, IP Watch may monitor the any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove, edit or otherwise alter content that it deems inappropriate for any reason whatever without consent nor notice. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on our site. IP Watch is not in any manner endorsing the content of the discussion forums and cannot and will not vouch for its reliability or otherwise accept liability for it.

    3. By submitting any contribution to IP Watch, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to IP Watch for all purposes and you agree to indemnify IP Watch, its directors, employees and agents against all damages, legal fees and others expenses that may be incurred by IP Watch as a result of your breach of warranty or of these terms.

    4. You further agree not to publish any personal information about yourself or anyone else (for example telephone number or home address). If you add a comment to a blog, be aware that your email address will be apparent.

    5. IP Watch will not be liable for any loss including but not limited to the following (whether such losses are foreseen, known or otherwise): loss of data, loss of revenue or anticipated profit, loss of business, loss of opportunity, loss of goodwill or injury to reputation, losses suffered by third parties, any indirect, consequential or exemplary damages.

    6. You understand and agree that the discussion forums are to be used only for non-commercial purposes. You may not solicit funds, promote commercial entities or otherwise engage in commercial activity in our discussion forums.

    7. You acknowledge and agree that you use and/or rely on any information obtained through the discussion forums at your own risk.

    8. For any content that you post, you hereby grant to IP Watch the royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, exclusive and fully sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform and display such content in whole or in part, world-wide and to incorporate it in other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed.

    9. These terms and your posts and contributions shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Switzerland (without giving effect to conflict of laws principles thereof) and any dispute exclusively settled by the Courts of the Canton of Geneva.

     

     
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