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IP-Watch Interns Summer 2013

IP-Watch interns talk about their Geneva experience in summer 2013. 2:42.

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    发达国家推动非洲反假冒努力快速发展

    Published on 22 December 2008 @ 1:43 pm

    By , Intellectual Property Watch

    作者:知识产权观察的尼克·瓦德汉姆(Nick Wadhams)

    肯尼亚,内罗毕 – 国际执法机构国际刑警组织(INTERPOL)正发挥领导作用,与大家担心中的大量涌入非洲的假冒伪劣药品和杀虫剂威胁进行斗争,以便保护依赖这类进口产品者的利益,保护从医院病人到医师直至农民的权益。
    “知识产权犯罪,特别是那些直接影响数百万民众福祉的犯罪,属于跨国犯罪,需要采取协调一致的对策,”国际刑警组织的地区计划“非洲绿洲”(OASIS-Africa)计划主任久里亚诺·扎卡迪里(Giuliano Zaccardelli)于上月在内罗毕举行的知识产权问题大会上发言说道。
    尽管很难确定具体数字,世界卫生组织相信,发展中国家销售的30%的药品是假冒伪劣产品;在非洲一些地区,这一数字可能高达90%。例如,在肯尼亚,国家质量控制实验室结论指出,假冒伪劣的药品有时仅仅就是一钱不值的粉笔末式药片或者灌上水的水瓶,年销售额却高达1.3亿美元。
    假冒伪劣的药品贸易愈益猖獗。在非洲,由于腐败盛行,不受规范的药品销售特别令人忧心忡忡。因为贫困随处可见,人们不顾一切地寻找最可能廉价的药品。因为工资很低,海关官员和警察也经常参与此类贸易。
    这一贸易每年可能导致几十万人死亡,与该威胁进行斗争的必要性正是内罗毕大会的原因之一。国际刑警组织秘书长罗纳德·诺贝尔(Ronald Noble)告诉大会,说人们相信假冒伪劣药品是每年死于疟疾的100万人当中20万人死亡的元凶。

    警告反假冒伪劣努力不要过火

    然而,一些非政府组织担心,在一些非洲国家打击假冒伪劣的努力将妨碍用于治疗诸如艾滋病的仿制而合法药品的进口。
    例如,非政府团体无疆界医师组织已经发出警告,肯尼亚政府一项提议中的法案给假冒伪劣药品下的定义太广,包括了禁止仿制药品。这项法案的通过将严重妨碍肯尼亚人民获得廉价药品。
    无疆界医师组织于10月份发表声明指出,“例如,抗逆转录病毒药物耐维拉品(nevirapine)或拉米福丁(lamivudine)都在肯尼亚获得专利注册。而法案对于获得此类救命药物以及依赖仿制药生产或进口药物将产生灭顶之灾。”
    同时,专家们还说,假冒伪劣者已经集中精力用另一个手段谋利:用于农耕的假冒杀虫剂和其他化学药品。农业化学工业担心,非洲农民对于这一潜在问题非常无知,不知道他们正买的的东西或许是假冒伪劣产品。
    在东非地区,人们的食品营养主要来源于自给自足式的农耕,国民经济依赖诸如咖啡、鲜花、茶叶和蔬菜的出口获得收入。作物不收将造成灭顶之灾。
    “因为假冒伪劣药品的调查太多,所以我看到那些坏蛋有着转向不容易发现的坏产品生产贸易的趋势,”国际作物生命协会(Croplife Internaitonal)的反假冒国际部主任达西·奎恩(D’Arcy Quinn)在采访中说道。
    10年前肯尼亚发生的咖啡作物歉收,假冒杀虫剂就是罪魁祸首。使用假冒药物或不受规范的农业化学药剂的问题非常严重,以至于欧盟已经发出警告,因为实验表明从坦桑尼亚进口的农产品杀虫剂含量“普遍过高”,所以可能会禁止从坦桑尼亚进口农产品。了解这一辩论的农业产业代表以匿名的方式说道:“如果发生这一情况,你可以想象会对经济产生什么影响。”
    所以,国际反假冒伪劣的倡导者们把工作重点放在力求保证使各国政府意识到假冒药品会给它们造成多大代价方面。
    “这些培训计划的一个具体重点就是表明对其经济和人民的消极影响,直至他们认识到这一问题正在伤害他们,”美国工商会的全球知识产权中心高级顾问布拉德·哈瑟(Brad Huther)告诉知识产权观察。
    人们认为,全世界高达75%的假冒伪劣药品和杀虫剂源于中国。所以人们担心,随着非洲国家与中国建立联系,非洲局势只会更加糟糕。在过去几年,中国政府和中国公司与非洲领导人签订了众多的协议,建筑公路、进口货物或者开发自然资源。专家们担心,随着这些供应链愈加宽阔,就会出现更多的假冒伪劣品。
    “中国人说,‘要解决这一问题需要很长时间’。但中国人采取的是短期策略。”哈瑟说道。“但是我总是听到‘给我们更多的时间吧’,五年时间下来,我却没有看到中国取得显著改善的迹象。”

    Categories: Chinese

     


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    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website. By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website.

    By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    1. You agree that you are fully responsible for the content that you post. You will not knowingly post content that violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property right of any third party or which you know is under a confidentiality obligation preventing its publication and that you will request removal of the same should you discover that you have violated this provision. Likewise, you may not post content that is libelous, defamatory, obscene, abusive, that violates a third party's right to privacy, that otherwise violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, that amounts to spamming or that is otherwise inappropriate. You may not post content that degrades others on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual preference, disability or other classification. Epithets and other language intended to intimidate or to incite violence are also prohibited. Furthermore, you may not impersonate others.

    2. You understand and agree that Intellectual Property Watch is not responsible for any content posted by you or third parties. You further understand that IP Watch does not monitor the content posted. Nevertheless, IP Watch may monitor the any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove, edit or otherwise alter content that it deems inappropriate for any reason whatever without consent nor notice. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on our site. IP Watch is not in any manner endorsing the content of the discussion forums and cannot and will not vouch for its reliability or otherwise accept liability for it.

    3. By submitting any contribution to IP Watch, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to IP Watch for all purposes and you agree to indemnify IP Watch, its directors, employees and agents against all damages, legal fees and others expenses that may be incurred by IP Watch as a result of your breach of warranty or of these terms.

    4. You further agree not to publish any personal information about yourself or anyone else (for example telephone number or home address). If you add a comment to a blog, be aware that your email address will be apparent.

    5. IP Watch will not be liable for any loss including but not limited to the following (whether such losses are foreseen, known or otherwise): loss of data, loss of revenue or anticipated profit, loss of business, loss of opportunity, loss of goodwill or injury to reputation, losses suffered by third parties, any indirect, consequential or exemplary damages.

    6. You understand and agree that the discussion forums are to be used only for non-commercial purposes. You may not solicit funds, promote commercial entities or otherwise engage in commercial activity in our discussion forums.

    7. You acknowledge and agree that you use and/or rely on any information obtained through the discussion forums at your own risk.

    8. For any content that you post, you hereby grant to IP Watch the royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, exclusive and fully sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform and display such content in whole or in part, world-wide and to incorporate it in other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed.

    9. These terms and your posts and contributions shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Switzerland (without giving effect to conflict of laws principles thereof) and any dispute exclusively settled by the Courts of the Canton of Geneva.

     

     
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