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    联合国领导的互联网治理论坛 触及知识产权并展望未来

    Published on 22 December 2008 @ 1:46 pm

    By , Intellectual Property Watch

    作者:知识产权观察的莫妮卡·厄尔莫特(Monika Ermert)

    印度海德拉巴市 – 12月在印度海德拉巴市召开的第三届联合国领导的互联网治理论坛讨论了与知识产权和信息自由流动相关的一系列题目,并为各方面代表针对美日两国领导的闭门国际反假冒公约谈判表达质疑提供了场所。
    电子前沿基金会的国际事务部主任爱顿·卡兹(Eddan Katz)警告说,建议通过《反假冒贸易协定》(ACTA)的意图是联合各国政府来共同打击非法贸易,但是它或许起到妨碍过去一年在知识产权法领域出现的更多积极进展的作用。
    从事知识获得和公开标准工作的各活跃联盟在几个研讨会上概述了与知识产权相关的一些进展情况。在互联网治理论坛的主要讨论会议上,知识产权还是没有被放在突出的位置。
    巴西外交官埃弗顿·卢塞罗(Everton Lucero)在论坛的一次主要会议中发言,告诫与会者《反假冒贸易协定》会成为一个反面例子,与如下互联网治理论坛所公认的重大成功模式背道而驰:政府、工业界与民间社会进行多利益攸关方的合作以及所谓的“高级合作”模式。卢塞罗告诉知识产权观察:“事实上,[《反假冒贸易协定》]是最糟糕的例子。”
    “原则来说,我们不会轻易遵守那些我们没有参与谈判过程的公约,”卢塞罗在互联网治理论坛有关强化合作的会议上说道。“我们应该避免创造出像《反假冒贸易协定》这样一个仅仅局限于少数者的模式,”卢塞罗说,“还有,求求大家了,让我们还要避免那些仅仅由一个单一政府推动的模式,比如像互联网名称和数字地址分配机构(ICANN)的模式。”
    在互联网治理论坛上,“开放式标准活跃联盟”采取了一个较为具体的步骤,即发布了“《支持互操作性和开放式标准的采购协定》”(Agreement on Procurement in Support of Interoperability and Open Standards)。那些想“通过使用开放式标准来促进互操作性和可及性”的政府、公共资助机构和非盈利机构都可以采用该协定。
    同时,开放式标准联盟在海德拉巴市主办了两场研讨会,会议讨论了开放式文档模式(ODF)方面的进展情况。阿斯兰·拉菲(Aslam Raffee)在一场关于知识作为全球公共品的研讨会上报告指出,2009年初,开放式文件模式将在各政府机构成为默认选项。在今年早些时候举办的一个开放式文件模式研讨会上,“南方联盟”(包括巴西、古巴、厄瓜多尔、巴拉圭、南非和委内瑞拉)通过了一份联合声明,批评了对这些国家关于国际标准组织对微软的OOXML文档标准的标准化过程所做呼吁断然拒绝的做法。批评者认为,微软OOXML文档标准与开放式文档模式的文档标准相互重叠。国际标准组织接受OOXML标准化引发了标准化过程可能改革的大辩论。
    另外,国际知识生态协会(Knowledge Ecology International)的提鲁·巴拉苏布拉马尼亚(Thiru Balasubramaniam)指出,存在作为公共物品的知识长期供应短缺的问题。为解决这一问题,采取的下一个集体行动步骤就是请求世贸组织考虑通过一个公共物品新协议,《世贸组织服务贸易协议》可以作为新协议的蓝本。
    自里约热内卢会议以来,已经成立了三个活跃联盟:网上合作、互联网与气候变化、可及性和残疾(使联盟数目达到了13个)。最后两个联盟是由联合国国际电联(ITU)发起的,负责信息社会世界峰会进程的工作。
    国际电联于11月份举办了一场活动,对信息社会世界峰会的后续活动进行了评估。在评估中,世界电联总干事对互联网治理论坛和互联网名称和数字地址分配机构进行了严厉抨击。(详情请参看www.ip-watch.org)
    展望未来,联合国秘书长关于互联网治理问题特别顾问尼庭·德赛(Nitin Desai)在互联网治理论坛有关未来发展方向的会议中问道:“我们能否设计某种东西,至少在一些有限的、明确界定的领域中,一种进程成功缩小了各种分歧呢?”
    尽管论坛被首先视为“有助于其他方面形成决策的对话和讨论的进程”和“第二轨道外交”,德赛承认,现在面临着“摆脱”高谈阔论并诉诸“行动”的压力。互联网治理论坛也面临着一场评估,在2010年向联合国秘书长和联合国理事会做出是否延长互联网治理论坛授权期限之前,评估结果将为其提供信息以助其决策。
    现在规划的最后一次会议将于2010年11月在立陶宛举行。2009年的会议将由埃及主办,并计划于11月15日至18日在沙姆沙伊赫市(Sharm El Sheikh)举行。

    [有关互联网治理论坛的详情,请参看 www.ip-watch.org.]

    Categories: Chinese

     


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    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website. By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website.

    By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    1. You agree that you are fully responsible for the content that you post. You will not knowingly post content that violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property right of any third party or which you know is under a confidentiality obligation preventing its publication and that you will request removal of the same should you discover that you have violated this provision. Likewise, you may not post content that is libelous, defamatory, obscene, abusive, that violates a third party's right to privacy, that otherwise violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, that amounts to spamming or that is otherwise inappropriate. You may not post content that degrades others on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual preference, disability or other classification. Epithets and other language intended to intimidate or to incite violence are also prohibited. Furthermore, you may not impersonate others.

    2. You understand and agree that Intellectual Property Watch is not responsible for any content posted by you or third parties. You further understand that IP Watch does not monitor the content posted. Nevertheless, IP Watch may monitor the any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove, edit or otherwise alter content that it deems inappropriate for any reason whatever without consent nor notice. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on our site. IP Watch is not in any manner endorsing the content of the discussion forums and cannot and will not vouch for its reliability or otherwise accept liability for it.

    3. By submitting any contribution to IP Watch, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to IP Watch for all purposes and you agree to indemnify IP Watch, its directors, employees and agents against all damages, legal fees and others expenses that may be incurred by IP Watch as a result of your breach of warranty or of these terms.

    4. You further agree not to publish any personal information about yourself or anyone else (for example telephone number or home address). If you add a comment to a blog, be aware that your email address will be apparent.

    5. IP Watch will not be liable for any loss including but not limited to the following (whether such losses are foreseen, known or otherwise): loss of data, loss of revenue or anticipated profit, loss of business, loss of opportunity, loss of goodwill or injury to reputation, losses suffered by third parties, any indirect, consequential or exemplary damages.

    6. You understand and agree that the discussion forums are to be used only for non-commercial purposes. You may not solicit funds, promote commercial entities or otherwise engage in commercial activity in our discussion forums.

    7. You acknowledge and agree that you use and/or rely on any information obtained through the discussion forums at your own risk.

    8. For any content that you post, you hereby grant to IP Watch the royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, exclusive and fully sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform and display such content in whole or in part, world-wide and to incorporate it in other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed.

    9. These terms and your posts and contributions shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Switzerland (without giving effect to conflict of laws principles thereof) and any dispute exclusively settled by the Courts of the Canton of Geneva.

     

     
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