SUBSCRIBE TODAY!
Subscribing entitles a reader to complete stories on all topics released as they happen, special features, confidential documents and access to the complete, searchable story archive online back to 2004.
IP-Watch Summer Interns

IP-Watch interns talk about their Geneva experience in summer 2013. 2:42.

Inside Views

Submit ideas to info [at] ip-watch [dot] ch!

We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website.

By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

1. You agree that you are fully responsible for the content that you post. You will not knowingly post content that violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property right of any third party or which you know is under a confidentiality obligation preventing its publication and that you will request removal of the same should you discover that you have violated this provision. Likewise, you may not post content that is libelous, defamatory, obscene, abusive, that violates a third party's right to privacy, that otherwise violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, that amounts to spamming or that is otherwise inappropriate. You may not post content that degrades others on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual preference, disability or other classification. Epithets and other language intended to intimidate or to incite violence are also prohibited. Furthermore, you may not impersonate others.

2. You understand and agree that Intellectual Property Watch is not responsible for any content posted by you or third parties. You further understand that IP Watch does not monitor the content posted. Nevertheless, IP Watch may monitor the any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove, edit or otherwise alter content that it deems inappropriate for any reason whatever without consent nor notice. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on our site. IP Watch is not in any manner endorsing the content of the discussion forums and cannot and will not vouch for its reliability or otherwise accept liability for it.

3. By submitting any contribution to IP Watch, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to IP Watch for all purposes and you agree to indemnify IP Watch, its directors, employees and agents against all damages, legal fees and others expenses that may be incurred by IP Watch as a result of your breach of warranty or of these terms.

4. You further agree not to publish any personal information about yourself or anyone else (for example telephone number or home address). If you add a comment to a blog, be aware that your email address will be apparent.

5. IP Watch will not be liable for any loss including but not limited to the following (whether such losses are foreseen, known or otherwise): loss of data, loss of revenue or anticipated profit, loss of business, loss of opportunity, loss of goodwill or injury to reputation, losses suffered by third parties, any indirect, consequential or exemplary damages.

6. You understand and agree that the discussion forums are to be used only for non-commercial purposes. You may not solicit funds, promote commercial entities or otherwise engage in commercial activity in our discussion forums.

7. You acknowledge and agree that you use and/or rely on any information obtained through the discussion forums at your own risk.

8. For any content that you post, you hereby grant to IP Watch the royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, exclusive and fully sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform and display such content in whole or in part, world-wide and to incorporate it in other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed.

9. These terms and your posts and contributions shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Switzerland (without giving effect to conflict of laws principles thereof) and any dispute exclusively settled by the Courts of the Canton of Geneva.

Latest Comments
  • So simply put, we have the NABP saying that all ph... »
  • The original Brustle decision was widely criticise... »

  • For IPW Subscribers

    A directory of IP delegates in Geneva. Read more>

    A guide to Geneva-based public health and intellectual property organisations. Read More >


    Monthly Reporter

    The Intellectual Property Watch Monthly Reporter, published from 2004 to January 2011, is a 16-page monthly selection of the most important, updated stories and features, plus the People and News Briefs columns.

    The Intellectual Property Watch Monthly Reporter is available in an online archive on the IP-Watch website, available for IP-Watch Subscribers.

    Access the Monthly Reporter Archive >

    公开渠道信息公司控告IBM违背反托拉斯法而IBM要求分析

    Published on 26 April 2010 @ 12:30 pm

    By , Intellectual Property Watch

    计算机巨人IMB正面临一家公开渠道信息软件公司在欧洲委员会提出的违背反托拉斯法的控告,该软件公司声称IMB阻止客户使用其软件。与此同时,公开渠道信息业界担心,IBM作为一家公开渠道软件制作的领军企业将运用知识产权来阻止竞争者,而这将危及自由和公开渠道的软件,并有可能打开其他公司纷纷声张知识产权的阀门。就此,IBM再次表示对公开渠道信息业界的支持,并要求竞争公司解释其软件如何不会侵犯到IBM的知识产权。

    1999年,大力士(Hercules)公开渠道信息项目组创设了大力士牌“模仿器”。根据以法国为制造基地的商业实体涡轮大力士公司(TurboHercules SAS)的美国律师泰德•海纳波利(Ted Henneberry)的说法,这一技术运用了IBM说明书套件,对套件进行了翻译和解释,使其可以在建造于Intel处理技术之上的微软服务器这样的非IBM主机平台上运行IBM客户计划和应用。这个法国公司努力销售大力士产品,也是提起该反托拉斯案件诉讼的原告。

    涡轮大力士公司是大力士品牌创始人罗杰•保乐(Roger Bowler)于2009年创建的。在该公司创建不久,保乐就向IBM公司发出了2009年7月信函[pdf],解释说其公司正在努力“创建一个商业企业,向客户提供有兼容能力的主机平台的选择,同时为IBM主机的生态系统的长期健康作出贡献。”涡轮大力士公司建议,为IBM主机客户提供许可,使其在涡轮大力士公司的平台上使用IBM的运行系统,并让IBM设定这样一个许可证的“合理和公平的”价格。

    一个主机是特别适合于处理大量数据的计算机基础设施。主机可用来处理银行信用卡交易或航班预定系统。

    IBM于11月回复拒绝了这一提议。IBM答复说,“模仿IBM的专利所有权”系统必须要获得公司的知识产权。IBM在张贴于涡轮大力士公司网址上的11月4日复函[pdf]中说,“你会认识到,从合理角度说,IBM不可能考虑许可把自己的运行系统批准用于侵犯其产权的平台之上。”

    根据该公司致IBM的11月18日复函[pdf],涡轮大力士公司表示对于IBM公司提出知识产权侵权和对公开渠道信息技术缺乏支持感到惊讶,指出这一立场与世界领先者往日的立场相背离;IBM于2005年承诺不追究[pdf]公开信息技术业界侵犯其500项专利,而当前立场背离了2005年的承诺。

    2010年3月,IBM最终答复[pdf]说,它“对侵犯IBM专利技术表示深刻担忧”,IBM公司花了“数年和数十亿美元来开发”技术,而且“众所周知”,IBM“在该领域拥有许多知识产权”。在该复函中,IBM提供了一份有可能被大力士公司侵权的专利清单。根据保乐的说法,这些专利技术中至少有两项专利是IBM公司2005年承诺的一个部分。

    保乐在发给《知识产权观察》的一份声明中写到,“大力士品牌已经存在了10年多,其间从来没有从IBM公司听到有任何关于大力士公司侵犯IBM知识产权的指控,IBM还曾经在它的一个红皮书中以整整一章的篇幅来描述大力士,而且只是在几年前才悄悄删除这一章。”

    对IBM提出反托拉斯法的指控

    根据一份新闻公告,涡轮大力士公司于3月23日向位于布鲁塞尔的欧盟委员会竞争局提出正式控告。该控告书说,IBM“在主机运行系统的市场中占据了100%的垄断”,并且正试图通过让客户除使用IBM主机硬件外无法运行IBM的运行系统的方式滥用这一垄断地位,原告认为这是“非法捆绑”。

    海纳波利认为,欧洲委员会竞争局将要求IBM提出答复,并将在过去同类性质的指控背景下分析答复后决定这些指控是否值得正式进入受理程序。

    此外,涡轮大力士公司认为,IBM过去的政策是公布其主机运行系统的相互运行信息,而IBM最近却引进了新的性能,这些新性能依赖于IBM系统的z运行系统(z/OS)与IBM主机之间的界面,可是却没有这些界面的任何文件资料。公司新闻稿指出,这就阻止了公开渠道信息利用技术业界“在大力士与IBM主机运行系统之间维持完全的兼容性”。

    反托拉斯法的控诉书请求欧洲委员会要求IBM把它的主机运行系统与主机硬件分开来发放许可,并要求IBM继续公布z/OS界面的技术参数和议定书,或者把这些界面或议定书的许可证给予涡轮大力士公司。

    保乐在4月6日的新闻稿中说,作出针对IBM采取行动的决定是很不情愿的。“我们并不要求对IBM施以罚款,”我们“仅仅希望IBM同意允许其z/OS主机运行系统的客户合法付款后可以把这个软件安装到自己选择的硬件平台上。”

    保乐说道,大力士“不是一个弄虚作假的Gucci皮包公司”保乐说道,“它是第三方,是善意运用IBM公布的有关其z/设施文件而开发的软件模仿器。”

    自由公开渠道信息软件(英文简称FOSS)遭受威胁了吗?

    弗劳仁•穆艾勒(Florian Mueller)是软件开发员和2004年无软件专利运动发起人。他认为,IBM所说的大力士公司专利侵权事件有可能会威胁到其他一些关键的FOSS项目, 诸如MySQL, VirtualBox和SQLite项目。

    穆艾勒在FOSS网站上列出了一个可能危及公开渠道信息软件开发项目的专利清单。穆艾勒认为,“IBM对大力士的攻击就是针对普遍意义上的互动运行性和FOSS革新的攻击。”穆艾勒呼吁监管部门进行干预。

    IBM重申对公开渠道信息利用的承诺

    IBM在一份发给《知识产权观察》的声明中重申了自己对公开渠道信息利用的承诺。该公司说,它“在过去数年在这个行业中投入了数十亿美元。”

    “如果涡轮大力士公司是公开渠道信息利用业界的一个合格成员并遵守这一承诺的有关规定,那么IBM公司不会针对涡轮大力士公司就两项承诺之内的专利声张任何法律权利。”声明说道。“然而,由于我们对涡轮大力士公司不甚了解,所以该公司应该作出努力证明自己作为公开渠道信息业界一分子的资格。”

    “此外,”IBM说道,“我们已经让涡轮大力士公司认识到,涡轮大力士公司可能侵犯其他许多专利。我方回函的整体意思就是这样:让涡轮大力士公司认识到我们的知识产权,以便其可以作出适当的分析。我们期望看到这种分析。”

    海纳波利认为,涡轮大力士公司希望欧洲委员会重新启用过去的法令,诸如欧洲委员会与IBM之间达成的“1984年承诺”(1984 Undertaking)这样的法令。 “IBM同意对该委员会对与涡轮大力士公司所控告的同类做法调查予以了结。根据本协议,IBM被要求公布界面议定书和其他技术信息,以便使客户把IBM的运行系统与非IBM硬件平台一起使用 – 换句话说,它阻止了IBM把它的运行系统捆绑到它的硬件平台之上。

    IBM保留了通告撤出这一承诺的权利,并1990年代末作出了通告。当时,委员会说将继续关注该市场,”他告诉《知识产权观察》说,“美国也有一个类似法令,不过2001年该法令效力被终止了。”

    在自由和公开渠道信息业界,各方对涡轮大力士公司作为公开渠道信息公司的地位发起了辩论。你在这里[pdf]与这里[pdf]可以找到这些讨论。

     


    Leave a Reply

    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website. By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website.

    By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    1. You agree that you are fully responsible for the content that you post. You will not knowingly post content that violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property right of any third party or which you know is under a confidentiality obligation preventing its publication and that you will request removal of the same should you discover that you have violated this provision. Likewise, you may not post content that is libelous, defamatory, obscene, abusive, that violates a third party's right to privacy, that otherwise violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, that amounts to spamming or that is otherwise inappropriate. You may not post content that degrades others on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual preference, disability or other classification. Epithets and other language intended to intimidate or to incite violence are also prohibited. Furthermore, you may not impersonate others.

    2. You understand and agree that Intellectual Property Watch is not responsible for any content posted by you or third parties. You further understand that IP Watch does not monitor the content posted. Nevertheless, IP Watch may monitor the any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove, edit or otherwise alter content that it deems inappropriate for any reason whatever without consent nor notice. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on our site. IP Watch is not in any manner endorsing the content of the discussion forums and cannot and will not vouch for its reliability or otherwise accept liability for it.

    3. By submitting any contribution to IP Watch, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to IP Watch for all purposes and you agree to indemnify IP Watch, its directors, employees and agents against all damages, legal fees and others expenses that may be incurred by IP Watch as a result of your breach of warranty or of these terms.

    4. You further agree not to publish any personal information about yourself or anyone else (for example telephone number or home address). If you add a comment to a blog, be aware that your email address will be apparent.

    5. IP Watch will not be liable for any loss including but not limited to the following (whether such losses are foreseen, known or otherwise): loss of data, loss of revenue or anticipated profit, loss of business, loss of opportunity, loss of goodwill or injury to reputation, losses suffered by third parties, any indirect, consequential or exemplary damages.

    6. You understand and agree that the discussion forums are to be used only for non-commercial purposes. You may not solicit funds, promote commercial entities or otherwise engage in commercial activity in our discussion forums.

    7. You acknowledge and agree that you use and/or rely on any information obtained through the discussion forums at your own risk.

    8. For any content that you post, you hereby grant to IP Watch the royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, exclusive and fully sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform and display such content in whole or in part, world-wide and to incorporate it in other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed.

    9. These terms and your posts and contributions shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Switzerland (without giving effect to conflict of laws principles thereof) and any dispute exclusively settled by the Courts of the Canton of Geneva.

     

     
    Your IP address is 54.237.153.141