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    الوصول إلى الدواء الآمن قضية صحة عامة, ليس ملكية فكرية, على حد تعبير المشاركين.

    Published on 17 November 2009 @ 5:04 pm

    By , Intellectual Property Watch

    بقلم كاثرين سايز.

    قد تعيق مبادرات مكافحة التزييف الوصول إلى الأدوية لكنها لا تخفف مشكلة العقارات المزيفة، خصوصاً في الدول النامية، وذلك بحسب ما قاله الأعضاء المشاركون في حدث نظم مؤخراً من قبل معهد المجتمع المفتوح.

    يقول المشاركون: إن الارتباك الحاصل بين الأدوية العامة المشروعة والأدوية ذات النوعية الرديئة وتلك التي تنسخ بشكل غير قانوني العلامة التجارية لمنتج تجاري قد يكون له تأثير مدمر، كما يجب وضع تعريف واضح ومحدد للتزوير وما ينطوي ضمن نظاقه.

    بحسب وثيقة أطباء بلا حدود، فإن الأدوية المزيفة هي منتجات يجري تغليفها بشكل متعمد لتبدو مشابهة للمنتج الأصلي لكنها فعلياً ليست كذلك، ما يعتبر انتهاكاً للعلامة التجارية. ومن جهة أخرى، فإن الدواء ردئ الجودة هو دواء منتج بطريقة شرعية لكنه لا يطابق المعايير المفروضة من قبل سلطة تنظيم الدواء ذات العلاقة، وهي مسألة تتعلق بضبط الجودة. وأخيراً، فإن الأدوية الجنيسة هي أدوية منتجة بشكل قانوني ومشابه للمنتج الأصلي ذو العلامة التجارية والذي لا يحمل عادة براءة اختراع، ويحتوي على المكونات الفعالة ذاتها.

    تقول سانغيتا شاشيكانت، مرشدة قانونية سابقة في شبكة العالم الثالث، في الحدث الذي تم في الخامس والعشرين من شهر أيلول: “عندما تحدثنا عن مبادرات مكافحة التزييف، كنا نشير بشكل أساسي إلى نهج تطبيق حماية الملكية الفكرية العالمي,”

    هناك أيضاً على المستوى الوطني دفع لإجراءات تطبيق حماية الملكية الفكرية في الدول النامية، وبشكل خاص في إفريقيا، وفقاً لشاشيكانت. على سبيل المثال, فقد أقرت كينيا قانوناً ضد التزييف، في حين تعمل أوغندة على مناقشة قانون مماثل.

    والمشكلة، وفقاً لشاشيكانت، تكمن في مدى تغطية مثل هذه التشريعات. في اتفاقية منظمة التجارة العالمية بخصوص النواحي المتعلقة بالتجارة لحقوق الملكية الفكرية ( تريبس )، يعرف التزييف على أنه انتهاك للعلامة التجارية. لكن القانون الكيني يتجاوز مدى تغطية تريبس عبر الإشارة إلى جميع انتهاكات الملكية الفكرية كبراءات الاختراع، العلامات التجارية، حقوق التأليف والنشر، التصاميم الصناعية، وحتى حماية التنوع النباتي.

    تضيف شاشيكانت قائلة بأنه ينبغي أن يتم التعامل مع مسألة جودة الدواء من قبل سلطات تنظيم الدواء، لا سلطات الجمارك، حيث أن موظفي الجمارك لا يمتلكون المقدرة على تحديد ما إذا كان منتج ما مخالفاً لحقوق الملكية الفكرية. كما تعتبر أن انتهاك الملكية الفكرية يجب أن يسجل من قبل مكاتب حماية الملكية الفكرية.

    توافق على هذا الرأي أيضاً بارثا ساتباثي, المستشارة في البعثة الدائمة للهند، وتقول بأن موظفي الجمارك لا يمتلكون المقدرة للحكم على جودة دواء ما.

    إن مجرد الاشتباه من قبل صاحب الحق في الملكية الفكرية يمكن أن يؤدي إلى مصادرة المنتجات عند الحدود واحتجازها لعدة أشهر، تقول شاشيكانت. لقد حدث هذا عدة مرات خلال السنة الماضية في أوروبا، وبشكل رئيسي في هولندا.

    لا ينبغي أن يخلط بين العقارات دون المستوى والعقارات العامة على الرغم من وجود محاولة متعمدة في بعض الأحيان لإثارة هذا التشويش، يقول إيليو كاردوسو، المستشار في البعثة الدائمة للبرازيل.

    وافق جميع المشاركين على حقيقة أن الوصول إلى الدواء الآمن لا ينبغي أن يكون متضمناً في إطار حماية الملكية الفكرية، وإنما يجب معالجته في إطار الصحة العامة. يقول كاردوسو: ” الوصول إلى العلاج في منظمة الصحة العالمية يجب أن يركز على مسألة الصحة العامة وليس على مسائل الملكية الفكرية.”

    بالنسبة إلى ميشيل تشايلدز من منظمة أطباء بلا حدود, فإن السؤال هو ليس الوصول إلى العلاجات الموجودة وإنما العلاجات الجديدة أيضاً. يتضمن القانون الهندي الآن قواعد جديدة خاصة بالملكية الفكرية كما أن بعض العقارات الجديدة الخاصة بمرض نقص المناعة المكتسبة تمتلك براءات اختراع، الأمر الذي يعيق الوصول إلى الأدوية الجديدة، وفقاً لميشيل.

     


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    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website.

    By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    1. You agree that you are fully responsible for the content that you post. You will not knowingly post content that violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property right of any third party or which you know is under a confidentiality obligation preventing its publication and that you will request removal of the same should you discover that you have violated this provision. Likewise, you may not post content that is libelous, defamatory, obscene, abusive, that violates a third party's right to privacy, that otherwise violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, that amounts to spamming or that is otherwise inappropriate. You may not post content that degrades others on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual preference, disability or other classification. Epithets and other language intended to intimidate or to incite violence are also prohibited. Furthermore, you may not impersonate others.

    2. You understand and agree that Intellectual Property Watch is not responsible for any content posted by you or third parties. You further understand that IP Watch does not monitor the content posted. Nevertheless, IP Watch may monitor the any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove, edit or otherwise alter content that it deems inappropriate for any reason whatever without consent nor notice. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on our site. IP Watch is not in any manner endorsing the content of the discussion forums and cannot and will not vouch for its reliability or otherwise accept liability for it.

    3. By submitting any contribution to IP Watch, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to IP Watch for all purposes and you agree to indemnify IP Watch, its directors, employees and agents against all damages, legal fees and others expenses that may be incurred by IP Watch as a result of your breach of warranty or of these terms.

    4. You further agree not to publish any personal information about yourself or anyone else (for example telephone number or home address). If you add a comment to a blog, be aware that your email address will be apparent.

    5. IP Watch will not be liable for any loss including but not limited to the following (whether such losses are foreseen, known or otherwise): loss of data, loss of revenue or anticipated profit, loss of business, loss of opportunity, loss of goodwill or injury to reputation, losses suffered by third parties, any indirect, consequential or exemplary damages.

    6. You understand and agree that the discussion forums are to be used only for non-commercial purposes. You may not solicit funds, promote commercial entities or otherwise engage in commercial activity in our discussion forums.

    7. You acknowledge and agree that you use and/or rely on any information obtained through the discussion forums at your own risk.

    8. For any content that you post, you hereby grant to IP Watch the royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, exclusive and fully sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform and display such content in whole or in part, world-wide and to incorporate it in other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed.

    9. These terms and your posts and contributions shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Switzerland (without giving effect to conflict of laws principles thereof) and any dispute exclusively settled by the Courts of the Canton of Geneva.

     

     
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