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    Pour les experts, l’accès à des médicaments sûrs est une question de santé publique et non de propriété intellectuelle

    Published on 15 October 2009 @ 1:31 pm

    By , Intellectual Property Watch

    Selon les participants à un récent événement organisé par Open Society Institute, les initiatives de lutte contre la contrefaçon pourraient limiter l’accès aux traitements sans pour autant réduire le problème des médicaments contrefaits, en particulier dans les pays en développement.

    L’impact de la confusion qui existe entre les médicaments génériques légaux, les médicaments de mauvaise qualité et ceux qui copient illégalement un produit de marque pourrait être dévastateur. Pour les participants à la rencontre, il est donc nécessaire de donner une définition précise de la contrefaçon et de délimiter sa portée.

    Selon un document de Médecins sans frontières, les médicaments contrefaits présentent un emballage intentionnellement semblable à celui des médicaments autorisés, mais ne le sont pas. C’est ce que l’on appelle la contrefaçon de marque. Par ailleurs, les médicaments de qualité inférieure sont produits légalement mais ne répondent pas aux normes fixées par l’autorité de régulation compétente. Il y a donc là un problème de contrôle de la qualité. Enfin, un médicament générique est produit de manière légale, identique au produit d’origine, (qui n’est généralement pas protégé par un brevet) et qui contient les mêmes principes actifs.

    « Lorsqu’il est question d’initiatives de lutte contre la contrefaçon, on fait habituellement référence aux plans d’application des droits de propriété intellectuelle au niveau mondial », a déclaré Sangeeta Shashikant, conseillère juridique pour l’organisation The Third World Network, lors de la rencontre du 25 septembre.

    Au niveau national, on assiste à un mouvement en faveur de l’application des droits de propriété intellectuelle dans les pays en développement, tout particulièrement en Afrique, a poursuivi Mme Shashikant. Ainsi, le Kenya a promulgué une loi anti-contrefaçon et l’Ouganda est en train d’en élaborer une.

    Le problème, selon Mme Shashikant, c’est la portée de ces lois. Dans l’Accord sur les aspects des droits de propriété intellectuelle qui touchent au commerce (Accord sur les ADPIC), la contrefaçon est définie comme une forme de violation de la marque. La loi kenyane va au-delà de l’Accord sur les ADPIC en faisant référence à tous les types de violations touchant aux brevets, aux marques commerciales, aux droits d’auteur, aux dessins industriels et même à la protection des variétés de plantes.

    La qualité des médicaments devrait être contrôlée par les autorités de régulation chargées des médicaments et non pas par les autorités douanières, les officiers de douanes n’étant pas en mesure de déterminer si un bien respecte ou non les droits de propriété intellectuelle, a conclu Mme Shashikant, en avançant que la violation de propriété intellectuelle devrait être du ressort des offices de propriété intellectuelle.

    Les officiers des douanes n’ont pas la capacité de juger de la qualité d’un médicament, a reconnu Partha Satpathy, conseillère de la Mission permanente de l’Inde. Une simple suspicion de la part du détenteur des droits de propriété intellectuelle peut amener à la saisie des biens à la frontière et à leur bloquage pendant plusieurs mois, a-t-elle expliqué. Cela s’est produit à de nombreuses reprises au cours de ces dernières années en Europe, majoritairement aux Pays-Bas.

    Il ne faut pas confondre médicaments de qualité inférieure et médicaments génériques, même si parfois les fabricants essaient de jouer sur cette confusion, a expliqué Elio Cardoso, conseiller à la Mission permanente au Brésil.

    Tous les participants sont tombés d’accord pour déclarer que la question de l’accès à des médicaments sûrs ne devait pas rentrer dans le cadre de la propriété intellectuelle mais dans celui de la santé publique.
    « La question de l’accès aux médicaments dans le cadre de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé devrait être abordée sous l’angle de la santé publique et non celui de la propriété intelectuelle », a conclu M. Cardoso.

    Pour Michelle Childs de Médecins sans frontières, le problème porte sur l’accès aux traitements existants mais également aux nouveaux traitements. La législation indienne possède désormais de nouvelles lois de propriété intellectuelle et certains des derniers médicaments contre le VIH sont protégés par des brevets, ce qui entrave l’accès aux nouveaux médicaments, a-t-elle expliqué.

    Traduit de l’anglais par Fanny Mourguet

    Catherine Saez may be reached at info@ip-watch.ch.

    Avec le soutien de l'Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.

     

    Comments

    1. Lucien David LANGMAN says:

      Bonjour,

      Les retardataires veulent toujours avoir raison.

      Nous nous sommes attaqués aux faux médicaments tout à la fois pour contrefaçon et pour danger pour la santé et l’homme.

      Prendre le train avec autant de retard ne permet pas de tirer sur l’ambulance.

      Ceux qui se réveillent aujourd’hui avec retard sont d’autant plus coupables et responsables de l’envolée des faux médiaments qu’ils n’avaient alors rien fait.

      Il est dangereux de vouloir se donner bonne conscience …en critiquant ceux qui avaient tirer la sonnette d’alarme.

      L’Open Society Institute parle mais le train est deja passé…sans eux.

      Lucien David LANGMAN Expert en Contrefaçon


    Leave a Reply

    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website. By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website.

    By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    1. You agree that you are fully responsible for the content that you post. You will not knowingly post content that violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property right of any third party or which you know is under a confidentiality obligation preventing its publication and that you will request removal of the same should you discover that you have violated this provision. Likewise, you may not post content that is libelous, defamatory, obscene, abusive, that violates a third party's right to privacy, that otherwise violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, that amounts to spamming or that is otherwise inappropriate. You may not post content that degrades others on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual preference, disability or other classification. Epithets and other language intended to intimidate or to incite violence are also prohibited. Furthermore, you may not impersonate others.

    2. You understand and agree that Intellectual Property Watch is not responsible for any content posted by you or third parties. You further understand that IP Watch does not monitor the content posted. Nevertheless, IP Watch may monitor the any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove, edit or otherwise alter content that it deems inappropriate for any reason whatever without consent nor notice. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on our site. IP Watch is not in any manner endorsing the content of the discussion forums and cannot and will not vouch for its reliability or otherwise accept liability for it.

    3. By submitting any contribution to IP Watch, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to IP Watch for all purposes and you agree to indemnify IP Watch, its directors, employees and agents against all damages, legal fees and others expenses that may be incurred by IP Watch as a result of your breach of warranty or of these terms.

    4. You further agree not to publish any personal information about yourself or anyone else (for example telephone number or home address). If you add a comment to a blog, be aware that your email address will be apparent.

    5. IP Watch will not be liable for any loss including but not limited to the following (whether such losses are foreseen, known or otherwise): loss of data, loss of revenue or anticipated profit, loss of business, loss of opportunity, loss of goodwill or injury to reputation, losses suffered by third parties, any indirect, consequential or exemplary damages.

    6. You understand and agree that the discussion forums are to be used only for non-commercial purposes. You may not solicit funds, promote commercial entities or otherwise engage in commercial activity in our discussion forums.

    7. You acknowledge and agree that you use and/or rely on any information obtained through the discussion forums at your own risk.

    8. For any content that you post, you hereby grant to IP Watch the royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, exclusive and fully sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform and display such content in whole or in part, world-wide and to incorporate it in other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed.

    9. These terms and your posts and contributions shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Switzerland (without giving effect to conflict of laws principles thereof) and any dispute exclusively settled by the Courts of the Canton of Geneva.

     

     
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