SUBSCRIBE TODAY!
Subscribing entitles a reader to complete stories on all topics released as they happen, special features, confidential documents and access to the complete, searchable story archive online back to 2004.
IP-Watch Summer Interns

IP-Watch interns talk about their Geneva experience in summer 2013. 2:42.

Inside Views

Submit ideas to info [at] ip-watch [dot] ch!

We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website.

By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

1. You agree that you are fully responsible for the content that you post. You will not knowingly post content that violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property right of any third party or which you know is under a confidentiality obligation preventing its publication and that you will request removal of the same should you discover that you have violated this provision. Likewise, you may not post content that is libelous, defamatory, obscene, abusive, that violates a third party's right to privacy, that otherwise violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, that amounts to spamming or that is otherwise inappropriate. You may not post content that degrades others on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual preference, disability or other classification. Epithets and other language intended to intimidate or to incite violence are also prohibited. Furthermore, you may not impersonate others.

2. You understand and agree that Intellectual Property Watch is not responsible for any content posted by you or third parties. You further understand that IP Watch does not monitor the content posted. Nevertheless, IP Watch may monitor the any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove, edit or otherwise alter content that it deems inappropriate for any reason whatever without consent nor notice. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on our site. IP Watch is not in any manner endorsing the content of the discussion forums and cannot and will not vouch for its reliability or otherwise accept liability for it.

3. By submitting any contribution to IP Watch, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to IP Watch for all purposes and you agree to indemnify IP Watch, its directors, employees and agents against all damages, legal fees and others expenses that may be incurred by IP Watch as a result of your breach of warranty or of these terms.

4. You further agree not to publish any personal information about yourself or anyone else (for example telephone number or home address). If you add a comment to a blog, be aware that your email address will be apparent.

5. IP Watch will not be liable for any loss including but not limited to the following (whether such losses are foreseen, known or otherwise): loss of data, loss of revenue or anticipated profit, loss of business, loss of opportunity, loss of goodwill or injury to reputation, losses suffered by third parties, any indirect, consequential or exemplary damages.

6. You understand and agree that the discussion forums are to be used only for non-commercial purposes. You may not solicit funds, promote commercial entities or otherwise engage in commercial activity in our discussion forums.

7. You acknowledge and agree that you use and/or rely on any information obtained through the discussion forums at your own risk.

8. For any content that you post, you hereby grant to IP Watch the royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, exclusive and fully sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform and display such content in whole or in part, world-wide and to incorporate it in other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed.

9. These terms and your posts and contributions shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Switzerland (without giving effect to conflict of laws principles thereof) and any dispute exclusively settled by the Courts of the Canton of Geneva.

The Politicization Of The US Patent System

The Washington Post story, How patent reform’s fraught politics have left USPTO still without a boss (July 30), is a vivid account of how patent reform has divided the US economy, preempting a possible replacement for David Kappos who stepped down 18 months ago. The division is even bigger than portrayed. Universities have lined up en masse to oppose reform, while main street businesses that merely use technology argue for reform. Reminiscent of the partisan divide that has paralyzed US politics, this struggle crosses party lines and extends well beyond the usual inter-industry debates. Framed in terms of combating patent trolls through technical legal fixes, there lurks a broader economic concern – to what extent ordinary retailers, bank, restaurants, local banks, motels, realtors, and travel agents should bear the burden of defending against patents as a cost of doing business.


Latest Comments
  • So this is how we mankind will become extinct? No ... »
  • 'Business methods were generally not patentable in... »

  • For IPW Subscribers

    A directory of IP delegates in Geneva. Read more>

    A guide to Geneva-based public health and intellectual property organisations. Read More >


    Monthly Reporter

    The Intellectual Property Watch Monthly Reporter, published from 2004 to January 2011, is a 16-page monthly selection of the most important, updated stories and features, plus the People and News Briefs columns.

    The Intellectual Property Watch Monthly Reporter is available in an online archive on the IP-Watch website, available for IP-Watch Subscribers.

    Access the Monthly Reporter Archive >

    戈兰案可能判决美国违反国际版权条约

    Published on 28 May 2009 @ 4:20 pm

    By for Intellectual Property Watch

    一家美国联邦法院最近给美国政府以及许多外国版权拥有者带来的一些不祥的消息。其中这些外国版权拥有者中就包括谢尔盖•拉赫玛尼诺夫(Sergei Rachmaninoff)、季米特里•肖斯塔科维奇(Dmitry Shostakovich)、谢尔盖•普罗科菲耶夫(Sergei Prokofiev)与伊戈尔•斯特拉文斯基(Igor Stravinsky)。该法庭宣布美国的一项恢复保护外国著作者版权的法律无效。

    这个位于科罗拉多州的联邦地区法院认为,在戈兰诉霍尔德(Golan v. Holder) [pdf in English]一案中,恢复外国著作者版权违反了美国宪法第一条修正案。该修正案保护个人与商业机构的言论自由权。这是一个标志性的判决,即一个美国法院在历史上破天荒第一次发现美国版权法条文与宪法第一条修正案相抵触。

    然而,戈兰案可能将美国置于一个相当尴尬的境遇。限制版权恢复的裁决可能使美国无法履行《伯尔尼公约》(Berne Convention) 以及世界贸易组织 《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》(TRIPS) 规定的义务。

    在加利福尼亚州的圣塔克拉拉(Santa Clara)法学院教授国际知识产权法的泰勒•欧扣尔(Tyler Ochoa)说,“若该判决在上诉中被维持原判,美国就有可能违反这些条约。”

    该问题起于一些曾属于美国版权法组成部分的不同寻常的程序。比如,在20世纪大多数时期里,一件作品要在美国受到版权保护,必须及时在美国版权局(US Copyright Office)登记注册,并按规定发布一条版权公告。作品注册后享受28年的版权保护,但如果为该作品完成适当的注册延续手续,则会再享受28年保护。

    在海外创作的作品经常因满足不了这些程序而无法获得或更新在美国的版权保护。结果,大量作品在原创国能受到版权保护,在美国却不然。

    1989年,当美国批准《伯尔尼公约》时就理应恢复对许多外国作品的版权保护。《伯尔尼公约》第18条规定,任一签约国必须对来自其他签约国的作品在其尚受到作品原创国版权保护时给予版权保护。
    然而,《伯尔尼公约》没有强制实施机制,美国当时没有遵守公约第18条规定。

    这种情况在1994年发生了变化。那时,通过国际间协商创立了世界贸易组织,签署了《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》。该协议要求各签约国达到关于知识产权保护的最低具体标准,包括《伯尔尼公约》所载之保护条款。某个国家若违反《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》,则将被在世界贸易组织的争端解决程序中被控,这可能会导致对违约国进行严厉的贸易制裁。

    弗吉尼亚大学(University of Virginia)法学院教授克里斯多夫•斯普里格曼(Christopher Sprigman) 指出,“《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》与《伯尔尼公约》的不同之处在于前者有惩罚能力,”“《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》拥有一套执行机制,能够做出惩治决定。”

    为避免抵触《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》,美国于1994年12月通过了一项法律,恢复了对外国作品的版权保护。然而不幸的是,根据今年5月3日科罗拉多州的联邦地方法院对戈兰诉霍尔德案的判决,这一被列为乌拉圭回合协议法案第514篇的法律(编号为17 USC §104A)违反了美国宪法第一条修正案。

    美国最高法院已大大限制了宪法第一条修正案对美国版权法的挑战。只有在国会改变对版权保护的传统认识时,埃尔德雷德诉阿什克罗夫特案(Eldred v. Ashcroft) 才允许出现这种挑战。

    国会恰恰就是这么做的。它通过了第541项法案,而第十届联邦巡回上诉法庭在2007年就戈兰诉冈萨雷斯(Golan v Gonzales) [pdf in English]一案做出了判决。该判决声明,恢复公共领域的版权保护违反了“版权法的基本原则,即已经成为公共物品的知识产权作品不得改变的原则。”然后该上诉法庭将此案发还科罗拉多州地区联邦法庭重审,裁决第541项法案是否违反宪法第一条修正案。

    根据该地区法院在戈兰诉霍尔德案(在此案中,美国每任命一位新的司法部长,被告人就换一次名字)的判决,法院认定第541项法案构成违宪。

    该地区法院认为,虽然美国遵守《伯尔尼公约》和《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》符合切身利益,但第541项法案明显超出遵守以上条约的必要性。尤其是当第541项法案恢复对一些外国作品的版权保护时,该法案为那些在版权得到恢复之际正在使用这些作品的实体创造了有限的安全保障。法案规定,在版权所有人就行使被恢复的版权提交意向书之后,该法案允许作品版权使用方有权对恢复版权的作品继续进行一年的复制和销售。若使用方在版权作品的基础上创造出衍生品,那么使用方可以在版权所有人提交行使被恢复的版权意向书之后继续利用衍生品谋利,但使用方必须支付“合理的版权使用费”。

    科罗拉多州地区联邦法庭认为,《伯尔尼公约》(以及后来的《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》)允许成员国对版权使用方提供太广泛的保护。该法院指出,“国会本可以通过对诸如依赖无版权作品的原告永久免责来遵守《伯尔尼公约》”。政府超出《伯尔尼公约》要求,过多地限制了使用方,所以就违反了宪法第一条修正案。该法院认为,第514项法案“剥夺了使用方在作品已经成为无版权的公共物品时对已开发使用的作品的权利。”

    该法院的判决富有争议。美国政府和一些版权专家坚持认为《伯尔尼公约》反对使用方永久无偿使用作品。而另外一些专家认为《伯尔尼公约》允许这样做。

    安东尼•法尔宗(Anthony Falzone)在斯坦福大学教授版权法,在此案任戈兰的律师。他说,“《伯尔尼公约》没有明示也无暗示表明使用方只能暂时使用版权作品。”他又补充道,“其他《伯尔尼公约》签约国,比如英国,允许永久使用权,在世界贸易组织争端解决机制框架内就一直没有受到挑战。”

    在此事上,该地区法院不可能是最后拍板人。观察家门大都希望美国政府上诉。如果第十届巡回上诉法庭维持该判决——许多人认为它会维持原判——那么美国可能面临国际不良后果。

    欧扣尔说,“如果该判决在上诉中得到维持,另一个国家可能要求世界贸易组织裁决我们没有遵守条约义务。”“若专家组认为我们没有遵守《伯尔尼公约》,那它可能授权该国对美国实行贸易制裁。”
    劳玉军译

     


    Leave a Reply

    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website. By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    We welcome your participation in article and blog comment threads, and other discussion forums, where we encourage you to analyse and react to the content available on the Intellectual Property Watch website.

    By participating in discussions or reader forums, or by submitting opinion pieces or comments to articles, blogs, reviews or multimedia features, you are consenting to these rules.

    1. You agree that you are fully responsible for the content that you post. You will not knowingly post content that violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property right of any third party or which you know is under a confidentiality obligation preventing its publication and that you will request removal of the same should you discover that you have violated this provision. Likewise, you may not post content that is libelous, defamatory, obscene, abusive, that violates a third party's right to privacy, that otherwise violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, that amounts to spamming or that is otherwise inappropriate. You may not post content that degrades others on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual preference, disability or other classification. Epithets and other language intended to intimidate or to incite violence are also prohibited. Furthermore, you may not impersonate others.

    2. You understand and agree that Intellectual Property Watch is not responsible for any content posted by you or third parties. You further understand that IP Watch does not monitor the content posted. Nevertheless, IP Watch may monitor the any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove, edit or otherwise alter content that it deems inappropriate for any reason whatever without consent nor notice. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on our site. IP Watch is not in any manner endorsing the content of the discussion forums and cannot and will not vouch for its reliability or otherwise accept liability for it.

    3. By submitting any contribution to IP Watch, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to IP Watch for all purposes and you agree to indemnify IP Watch, its directors, employees and agents against all damages, legal fees and others expenses that may be incurred by IP Watch as a result of your breach of warranty or of these terms.

    4. You further agree not to publish any personal information about yourself or anyone else (for example telephone number or home address). If you add a comment to a blog, be aware that your email address will be apparent.

    5. IP Watch will not be liable for any loss including but not limited to the following (whether such losses are foreseen, known or otherwise): loss of data, loss of revenue or anticipated profit, loss of business, loss of opportunity, loss of goodwill or injury to reputation, losses suffered by third parties, any indirect, consequential or exemplary damages.

    6. You understand and agree that the discussion forums are to be used only for non-commercial purposes. You may not solicit funds, promote commercial entities or otherwise engage in commercial activity in our discussion forums.

    7. You acknowledge and agree that you use and/or rely on any information obtained through the discussion forums at your own risk.

    8. For any content that you post, you hereby grant to IP Watch the royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, exclusive and fully sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform and display such content in whole or in part, world-wide and to incorporate it in other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed.

    9. These terms and your posts and contributions shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Switzerland (without giving effect to conflict of laws principles thereof) and any dispute exclusively settled by the Courts of the Canton of Geneva.

     

     
    Your IP address is 173.208.203.170